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EDIBLES II. On the detectability of C60+ bands

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Authors : Lallement, R. ; Cox, N. L. J. ; Cami, J. ; Smoker, J. ; Fahrang, A. ; Elyajouri, M. ; Cordiner, M. A. ; Linnartz, H. ; Smith, K. T. ; Ehrenfreund, P. ; Foing, B.

Abstract : Gas phase spectroscopic laboratory experiments for the
buckminsterfullerene cation C60+ resulted in accurate rest wavelengths for five C60+ transitions that have been compared with diffuse interstellar bands (DIBs) in the near infra-red. Detecting these in astronomical spectra is difficult due to the strong contamination of ground-based spectra by atmospheric water vapor, to the presence of weak and shallow stellar lines and/or blending with other weak DIBs. The detection of the two strong bands has been claimed by several teams, and the three additional and weaker bands have been detected in a few sources. Certain recent papers have argued against the identification of C60+ based on spectral analyses claiming (i) a large variation in the ratio between the equivalent widths of the 9632 and 9577A bands, (ii) a large redshift of the 9632A band for the Orion star HD 37022, and (iii) the non-detection of the weaker 9428A DIB. Here we
address these three points. (i) We show that the model stellar line correction for the 9632A DIB overestimates the difference between the strengths of the lines in giant and dwarf star spectra, casting doubts on the conclusions about the ratio variability. (ii) Using high quality stellar spectra from the ESO Diffuse Interstellar Bands Large Exploration Survey (EDIBLES), recorded with the ESO/Paranal Ultraviolet Echelle Spectrograph (UVES) in about the same atmospheric conditions, we find no wavelength shift in the 9632A band towards HD 37022. (iii) Using EDIBLES spectra and data from the Echelle SpectroPolarimetric Device for the Observation of Stars (ESPaDOnS) at CFHT we show that the presence of a weak 9428A band cannot be ruled out, even in the same observations that a previous study claimed it was not present.
Journal : Astronomy & Astrophysics arXiv:1802.00369